The NFT Collection Tutorial on Marmalade

The NFT Collection Tutorial on Marmalade

Hee Kyun Yun

January 25, 2023

Marmalade token policies allow for fine-grained customization of how NFTs are minted and sold. This article provides a tutorial demonstrating how an NFT collection supporting presale could be implemented in your NFT marketplace, using an example policy ‘simple-one-off-collection-policy`.

This tutorial will demonstrate the policy step-by-step with an example collection called muppets-v1.

Releasing the collection is accomplished in the following steps:

Initiate Collection (Operator)

Reserve Whitelist (Minter)

Reveal Tokens in collection (Operator)

Create / Mint Token (Minter)


Initiate Collection

In order to create a collection, the operator executes a function directly on the policy, marmalade.simple-1-off-whitelist-collection-policy.init-collection, with the required fields.

  • collection-id: id of collection.
  • collection-size: Total number of tokens in the collection.
  • collection-hash: Hash of the list of token IDs in the collection.
  • operator-guard: Guard that is used to reveal the tokens.
  • operator: existing fungible account to receive funds at mint.
  • fungible: the fungible to be paid at reserve_whitelist.
  • price: the fungible price of the whitelist to be transferred from buyer to operator.

The most important field to understand in this step is the collection-hash. In order to lock in the tokens without revealing its properties, the list of tokens will be hashed, with each token-id being the hash of its manifests. The tokens will be revealed at a later step, and the token manifests will have to match the given collection-hash in order to be created/minted.

When init-collection succeeds, an event (marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.INIT_COLLECTION collection-id collection-size collection-hash fungible price operator) will be emitted.

Initiate muppets-v1

Create a token-manifest for each token:

All marmalade tokens must use kip.token-manifest.create-manifest function, which will return a manifest format like this:

{ uri:object{mf-uri} hash:string data:[object{mf-datum}]}

For simplicity, each muppet token manifests will contain text of its names.

2. Use marmalade.ledger.create-token-id to generate token-ids.

(marmalade.ledger.create-token-id (kip.token-manifest.create-manifest (uri "text" "Kermit the Frog") [])))

The function simply formats the manifest with t:{manifest-hash}. The token-id for Kermit the Frog muppet token will therefore be t:33vh4wJvxEkXW72Bgvd88S6HKcyxLj2WJZEydAP4CCU.

We will do the same for the 7 more tokens, and get the list of token-ids.

(let* ( (get-manifest (lambda (muppet:string) (create-manifest (uri "text" muppet) []) )) (manifests:list (map get-manifest [ "Kermit the Frog" "Miss Piggy" "Fozzie Bear" "Gonzo" "Rowlf the Dog" "Scooter" "Animal" "Pepe the King Prawn" "Rizzo the Rat"])) (tokens:list (map (create-token-id) manifests) )) tokens)


[ "t:33vh4wJvxEkXW72Bgvd88S6HKcyxLj2WJZEydAP4CCU" "t:UohIzpKOlpp5l7UZ-KNni2xaLu5pO67QlHLmxj65g5U" "t:u7u36BxiPTKp5Wuq_mXOLS7r2LFRaLeEKg2FY6ylNX0" "t:rj3gbsmUdcXeb0kA39meDeKoMhWOPK6XEOCQ2RKF0q8" "t:uOCqa9-MgFF68zyxccZKORGDk2zMRLwpKdXvr8hfE5A" "t:dOFBE3GdsL-5BgMCdZfQzT20G81cANzwgwIf22N8_ig" "t:LScEFcxVDsvZP38jO1Kp95yNu7hGmGNrzYkwCM5UWyA" "t:--kKualbcNt2jKUPLG0Pyp6ByLJerOS_Wtxe914_YHA" "t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4"]

3.Hash the token list.

Finally, we can hash the list and get the collection-hash, by using hash function.

(hash ["t:33vh4wJvxEkXW72Bgvd88S6HKcyxLj2WJZEydAP4CCU" "t:UohIzpKOlpp5l7UZ-KNni2xaLu5pO67QlHLmxj65g5U" "t:u7u36BxiPTKp5Wuq_mXOLS7r2LFRaLeEKg2FY6ylNX0" "t:rj3gbsmUdcXeb0kA39meDeKoMhWOPK6XEOCQ2RKF0q8" "t:uOCqa9-MgFF68zyxccZKORGDk2zMRLwpKdXvr8hfE5A" "t:dOFBE3GdsL-5BgMCdZfQzT20G81cANzwgwIf22N8_ig" "t:LScEFcxVDsvZP38jO1Kp95yNu7hGmGNrzYkwCM5UWyA" "t:--kKualbcNt2jKUPLG0Pyp6ByLJerOS_Wtxe914_YHA" "t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4"] )

eLbTngl8lNBPshPMohX0ILM8l7R4RV8eNm9p0Pq1W6E is our collection hash. Note that all of the steps 1-3 are not to be done on-chain, but should be done off-chain. Only the following step will be executed on-chain.

4. Run init-collection

Finally, we have our required fields to initiate our collection. The following code creates muppet-v1 collection with 9 tokens that we generated above, with k:aa5f18ed095607fbef309abd5511baaa0844e067a61ed4cf51d5333e770ed030 being the operator account in fungible, coin, with whitelist price of 5.0. This code should now be sent to the chain.

(init-collection "muppet-v1" 9 "eLbTngl8lNBPshPMohX0ILM8l7R4RV8eNm9p0Pq1W6E" "k:aa5f18ed095607fbef309abd5511baaa0844e067a61ed4cf51d5333e770ed030" (read-keyset 'operator-guard) coin 5.0)

We will see the following event emitted once the transaction succeeds. (marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.INIT_COLLECTION "muppet-v1" 9 "eLbTngl8lNBPshPMohX0ILM8l7R4RV8eNm9p0Pq1W6E" "k:aa5f18ed095607fbef309abd5511baaa0844e067a61ed4cf51d5333e770ed030" coin 5.0)

Reserve Whitelist

Whitelists in this collection policy are on a first-come, first-served basis. This step is to be run by the minters.

To reserve whitelists, minters must have a fungible account with a balance bigger than the price.

In our example, muppets-v1 collection uses fungible, coin, so the mint account must be a coin account with a balance bigger than 5.0. Minters must use a principal-ed account. This can simply be a k:{public-key}, but there is an act function to generate it in code. For example, running the following code.

(create-principal (read-keyset 'keyset))

with a keyset of

{ "keys": ["27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4"], "pred": "keys-all"}

will generate a k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4.

Because this transaction will transfer coin to operator, the minters must sign the capability (coin.TRANSFER "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" "k:aa5f18ed095607fbef309abd5511baaa0844e067a61ed4cf51d5333e770ed030" 5.0) to send from mint account to the operator account.

2. With prepared account, minters can now run reserve-whitelist and get their slots locked in.

Successful whitelist will emit an event, (RESERVE_WHITELIST collection-id account whitelist-index). This info should be saved for the token creations and mint index.

The whitelist of the last token will generate a random index that will shift the whitelist slots. This shift index will be used to randomize the selection of NFTs within collection. By randomly setting the shift index at the end of whitelist, marmalade prevents the operator to reserve certain NFTs that may be more valuable than others.

Whitelist a token in muppet-v1

Run reserve-whitelist with a keyset.

(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.reserve-whitelist "muppet-v1" (create-principal (read-keyset 'keyset)))

2. Save the emitted event.

(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.RESERVE_WHITELIST "muppets-v1" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" 0)

3. Whitelist of the last token generates a shift-index.

Let’s assume that the last reserve-whitelist made it into block 20987. The shift-index generated will be 8, and the transaction will emit 2 events.

(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.RESERVE_WHITELIST "muppets-v1" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" 8)(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.SHIFT collection-0" 8)

Reveal Tokens

Once reserve-whitelist is complete, the operator can now reveal the token manifests, showing which whitelist index is dedicated to each token id.

Reveal muppets-v1

Operator of the muppets-v1 will prepare the token-ids, and run the function.

(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.reveal-tokens "muppets-v1" [ "t:33vh4wJvxEkXW72Bgvd88S6HKcyxLj2WJZEydAP4CCU" "t:UohIzpKOlpp5l7UZ-KNni2xaLu5pO67QlHLmxj65g5U" "t:u7u36BxiPTKp5Wuq_mXOLS7r2LFRaLeEKg2FY6ylNX0" "t:rj3gbsmUdcXeb0kA39meDeKoMhWOPK6XEOCQ2RKF0q8" "t:uOCqa9-MgFF68zyxccZKORGDk2zMRLwpKdXvr8hfE5A" "t:dOFBE3GdsL-5BgMCdZfQzT20G81cANzwgwIf22N8_ig" "t:LScEFcxVDsvZP38jO1Kp95yNu7hGmGNrzYkwCM5UWyA" "t:--kKualbcNt2jKUPLG0Pyp6ByLJerOS_Wtxe914_YHA" "t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4"])

Note that the function reveal-tokens enforces the hash of the list of the token-ids to match the collection-hash that was used in the init-collection step as shown below.

(enforce (= collection-hash (hash token-ids)) "Token manifests don't match")

In order for minters to be able to create and mint their tokens, the operator must publish the token manifests to the whitelisters.

Create Token / Mint Token

create-token is an operations required for each marmalade token in the collection to add it to the marmalade ledger. Minters must use the published manifest to call create-token.

This step is ideally run together with mint transaction. mint is the final step that is required to own the token. Similar to create-token, mint is a general marmalade operation.

Collection policy enforces that the create-token and mint is done by the whitelisted account.

Create “t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4” token.

Find thewhitelist-info.

In the previous step, we had reserved whitelist for the account, and saw the emitted event of below.

(marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy.RESERVE_WHITELIST "muppets-v1" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" 0)

We need 4 fields for whitelist info: collection-id, account, guard, index. What's not in this event is the guard. Guard can simply be the keyset info we've provided at (create-principal (read-keyset 'keyset)).

Our whitelist-info will be added to env-data of our transaction, and will look like the following:

{ 'whitelist-info : { 'collection-id: "muppets-v1" ,"index": 0 ,"account": "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" ,"guard": {"keys": ["27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4"], "pred": "keys-all"}}}

2. Find the token that matches the whitelist index.

Our whitelist index was 0. When the whitelist ended, the shift index was updated at 8. This means we will be able to mint the token at index 8. If our whitelist index was 1, we will be able to mint the token at index 0, and so on. The token-id at index 8 is t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4.

3. Receive the token-manifest from the operator.

The operator will release the token-manifest somewhere for the users to mint the tokens. The manifest that matches token t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4, is shown below.

{"uri": {"scheme": "text","data": "Rizzo the Rat"}, "hash": "sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4","data": []}

Note that above is the result of the code,

(kip.token-manifest.create-manifest (uri "text" "Rizzo the Rat") [])

4. Run create-token and mint with the whitelist-info in env-data.

create-token takes in token-id, precision, token-manifest, and policy. The precision is 0, because this is a one-off collection policy. mint takes in token-id, account, guard, and amount. amount is always 1.0, because this is an one-off collection policy.

(marmalade.ledger.create-token "t:sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4" 0 {"uri": {"scheme": "text","data": "Rizzo the Rat"}, "hash": "sQ19jh3-w3HOchpBefpKTBGj2_ARjC4xLiV0SVlokf4","data": []} marmalade.simple-one-off-collection-policy)( "t:9mCeDcVIuQET1awDEWbYXF-HlRzhLv5VW3hXiW9m678" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" (at 'guard (read-msg 'whitelist-info )) 1.0))

The minter needs to sign the capabilities, (marmalade.ledger.CREATE_TOKEN "t:9mCeDcVIuQET1awDEWbYXF-HlRzhLv5VW3hXiW9m678" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4"), (marmalade.ledger.MINT "t:9mCeDcVIuQET1awDEWbYXF-HlRzhLv5VW3hXiW9m678" "k:27fff7d20390142caf727cd4713d2c810839486fa2350af7e2ce980090185ce4" 1.0)

create-token and mint can run separately or together on the same transaction.


This collection policy uses plain transfer and transfer-create from the marmalade.ledger contract. transfer requires sender and receiver account names as well as the amount, which works with existing receiver accounts. transfer-create requires sender and receiver account names, receiver guard, and the amount, which works with existent and non-existent receivers. Sender's signature is required for both transfer and transfer-create.

Things to consider

We have now looked at initiating a collection to mint each token in the collection. The account designated at the mint step now owns the token in the main marmalade ledger.

There are more questions to be asked, however, including the scalability of bigger collections.

  • How should we prevent the operator from scamming the whitelisters? The contract collects the funds of the buyers at reserve-whitelist phase, which means that without operator from providing token-mainifests, the buyers cannot mint the token.
  • Should the operator run reveal-tokens? If the token list is available off-chain, then the operator is not necessarily required to reveal-tokens. If not, who should run it?
  • If the collection holds bigger tokens, then adding the slots and token-list as a list inside a table can become a costly transaction. The alternative can be adding each whitelists and token-ids as rows in the table.

We hope that you found this tutorial helpful! There will be lots of exciting development in Marmalade over the course of the year, so please follow us on our social channels to keep updated!